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Are you a human?.GA-Z68MA-D2H-B3 (rev. ) Généralités | Carte Mère – GIGABYTE France
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Gigabyte z68 ma d2h b3.GA-Z68MA-D2H-B3 (Rev. ) | Motherboard – GIGABYTE
GIGABYTE 3x USB Power with On/Off Charge USB ports. SLI and CrossFireX multi-graphics support for ultimate graphics performance. Hybrid EFI technology with DualBIOS for 3TB HDD support. HDMI/ DVI interface for smoother HD video playback. Enhanced Intel HD . Lasting Quality from TE Ultra Durable™ motherboards bring together a unique blend of features and technologies that offer users the absolute GA-Z68MA-D2H-B3 (rev. ) Specification | Motherboard – GIGABYTE Global. Jul 10, · To determine part numbers for the Gigabyte GA-Z68MA-D2H-B3 (rev ) motherboard, we use best guess approach based on CPU model, frequency and features. In some cases our guess may be incorrect. Please use specifications from the compatibility list .
GA-Z68MA-D2H-B3 (rev. ) Specification | Motherboard – GIGABYTE Global
Are you a human?
Statistical Synchronization Techniques: Injection is inevitable
In the past year, we witnessed how the semiconductor industry took another step forward – working prototypes of 65-nm microcircuits were demonstrated, 45-nm technologies are being developed with might and main. And once again, the question is raised whether it is worth continuing to adhere to static approaches to taking into account the time of arrival of sync pulses when designing chips. Last year, we reported on some of the alternatives offered by IBM (see. article “Probabilistic approach to the problem of synchronization of high-speed chips”), and at the ICCAD conference, held the other day in San Jose, new questions were raised and new methods were proposed.
The arising problem with the need to take into account the path along which the electrical impulse propagates in the static approach (STA, static timing analysis) is not insurmountable, it is only necessary to accurately estimate the time of arrival of the impulses and take into account the difference in the future. However, the spread of values is increasingly determined not by the size of the transistors, but by the length and shape of the conductors, the proximity to other elements, their mutual influence.
First, traditional photolithographic methods no longer allow creating accurate images on the surface of a semiconductor – instead of rectangles, engineers are forced to work with ellipsoids and hourglass-like shapes. Secondly, there are many problems with the thickness of the conductors, which varies along their length. Due to the fact that chemically active substances are used in technological processes, the surface of copper conductors has properties that are different from those of pure copper (from ourselves, we add that this problem could probably be solved if the conductors were made of gold, which did not lead would be to a significant rise in price – 1 gram of gold costs about twenty dollars, and not so much will be spent on the chip). But high-frequency currents propagate in a thin layer near the surface of the conductor (due to the so-called skin effect). Thus, high-frequency pulses are forced to propagate in a layer with uneven conductivity, uneven thickness and shape, sometimes with sharp corners and cracks, which leads to additional radiation losses.
Another problem arose with the creation of interlayer holes and joints in multilayer designs, which is why, at the beginning of the 130nm code, some manufacturers required designers to have an excessive number of joints to ensure that there was contact. Therefore, the resistance of such contacts is difficult even to a preliminary estimate. Also, undesirable conducting “bridges” often arise between the conductors running next to each other (in CMP processes this effect is not so noticeable, but the “bridges” still sometimes remain, having a high, but final resistance). And if we take into account that the nearby conductors have a certain capacity, RC-chains are obtained, which greatly slow down the propagation of pulses.
In these cases, the STA designs usually use the worst case, that is, the longest pulse arrival time is estimated. In SSTA (statistical static timing analysis, statistical approach), a probability density function is built for the time of arrival of a pulse at key points and confidence intervals are used, in the rest – the usual STA approach (to save time in chip design, because the probability density functions are processed for all conductors – it’s an extremely dreary business). As a result of applying SSTA, probabilistic results are obtained (for example, at the key point of the chip with a 95% probability, the delay time is equal to 30 ns, and with 15% – 25 ns), which make it possible to evaluate the yield of suitable chips and make a decision.
After a year, it can be noted that academic circles (University of California at San Diego) and chip design companies (eASIC, ViASIC, PMC-Sierra, Fulcrum Microsystems) began to show interest in SSTA. PMC-Sierra is expected to use Fulcrum’s SSTA technology in its system-on-chip internal bus designs based on MIPS asynchronous microprocessors. By the way, Fulcrum technology takes into account three logical states: “1”, “0”, and “not ready”.